Methods Of Psychology

 Introspection method

The earliest psychological approach is this one. The Latin words intro, which means within, and aspection, which means to gaze, were combined to create the English term introspection. In other words, to experience one’s own mental state, i.e., to observe, analyse, and report one’s own feelings, is what introspection means.

We must always and first and mainly rely on introspective observation, according to William James. It is barely necessary to define the term “introspection,” since it simply refers to exploring our own brains and documenting what we find there. Everyone agrees that through this method one can discover one’s own states of consciousness. So far as I know, the existence of such states has never been doubted by any critic, however sceptical in other respects he may have been.’

Observation Method

It is one of the oldest and most widely used psychological techniques. The technique of introspection and self-observation has been supplanted. The technique of observation is sometimes known as “objective observation.” According to John Dollard, “The primary research tool would seem to be the observing human intelligence trying to make sense out of human experience.” Observation is one of the fundamental techniques, meaning that a person’s behaviour (i.e., their bodily gestures, facial expressions, and other bodily actions) is observed.

Experimental Method

Being highly scientific, it is one of the most significant and objective psychological techniques. It is exact, planned, and systematic, or observation under controlled circumstances.

According to J.W Best. “Experimental research is the description and analysis of what will be, or what will occur, under carefully controlled conditions”. In experiments, there is always the attempt to establish certain cause and effect relationships through carefully planned and controlled observation of the subject’s behaviour.