Concept of Evaluation in Education

Evaluation is a process that critically examines a program. It involves collecting and analyzing information about a program’s activities, characteristics and outcomes. Its purpose is to evaluate a program, improve its effectiveness and/or make program decisions. 

It also provides a systematic method to study a program, practice, intervention, or initiative to understand how well it achieves its goals by determining what works well and what could be improved in a program or initiative.

Evaluation is an important component of the teaching-learning process as it helps teachers and learners to improve teaching and learning. It helps in forming the values of judgement, educational status, or achievement of students.

Formative Evaluation

1)Formative evaluation is used during the teaching learning process to monitor the learning process. 

2)It aims is to improve student’s learning and teacher’s teaching by provides feedback to the teacher to modify the methods.

3)Teacher made tests are highly used in formative evaluation.

4)Test items are prepared for limited content area.

5)It is continuous & regular process.

Examples of Formative evaluation are questioning, listening/observation, classroom interactions, projects, presentations, quizzes.

Summative evaluation

1)Summative evaluation is used after the course completion to assign the grades.

2)It enables teacher and students to know the level of accomplishment attained.

3)It evaluates what a candidate has learnt while  during the course. Besides it also evaluate how prepared someone is to go to the next academic level.

4)Standardized tests are used for the purpose.

5)Test items are prepared from the whole content area. 

6)It is not a regular and continuous process. It is Judgemental in nature.

Examples of summative evaluation are-mid-term exams, final exams, district and state tests, graded quizzes, etc.

 Distinction between Educational measurement and evaluation

1)Measurement is all about the numbers and being able to quantify the performance or the abilities while Evaluation assists with using the data and information to judge victory or failure. Evaluation can take place without numerical measurement as it measures performance.

2)Measurement requires some standardized tools for measuring. For example, A speedometer measures the speed of a moving car and a thermometer measure the temperature of a given space. These tools help to measure and record physical attributes while Evaluation can be used in conjunction with measurement to assess pupils’ or workers’ performance. Evaluation is a key element in a pupil’s performance and helps measure the progress of the individual. 

3)Measurements are more objective as they have numerical standards to compare and record while  Evaluation could be seen to be more subjective as it methods used are related to human sciences and performance.

4)Measurement is qualitative as it provides numerical judgment whereas Evaluation is qualitative as well as quantitative both because it assigns grade and level. For example– a student’s marks,  score, and rank are measurements but a student’s assigned grade is an example of evaluation.