Back to: Measurement and Evaluation in Education B.ed Notes, M.A Notes, IGNOU Notes and Graduation Notes

**what are the concepts of measurement**

Measurement refers to the process by which the attributes or dimensions of some physical object are determined. The English word measurement originates from the Latin *“mensura”* and the “The action of measuring something:* “accurate measurement is essential”.*

It is a numerical unit which aims to measure student’s progress and achievement, to motivate, improve quality and to solve problem.

We need measurement during admission procedure, for classification and comparison, for prediction, for guidance and for diagnosis as well.

It is important to understand the level of measurement of variables in research, because the level of measurement determines the type of statistical analysis that can be conducted, and, therefore, the type of conclusions that can be drawn from the research.

## what are 4 levels of measurement

There are 4 levels of measurement, which can be ranked from low to high: Nominal: the data can only be categorized, Ordinal: the data can be categorized and ranked, Interval: the data can be categorized, ranked, and evenly spaced whereas, in Ratio, the data can be categorized, ranked, evenly spaced and has a natural zero.

**Nominal level of measuremen**t

A Nominal Scale is a measurement scale, in which numbers serve as “tags” or “labels” only, to identify or classify an object. This measurement normally deals only with non-numeric (quantitative) variables or where numbers have no value.

**Ordinal level of measurement**

is the second of the four measurement scales. “Ordinal” indicates “order”. Ordinal data is quantitative data which have naturally occurring orders and the difference betweenthem is unknown. It can be named, grouped and also ranked. An ordinal scale extends the information of a nominal scale to show order, for example, an ordinal scale can be used to rank job applicants from the best to the worst.

**An interval scale of measurement**

** **It is a scale on which equal intervals between objects, represent equal differences. Interval scales provide order information, and also possess equal intervals. Equal-interval scales of measurement can be devised for opinions and attitudes. Constructing them involves an understanding of mathematical and statistical principles.

**The ratio level of measurement**

It is the highest of the four hierarchical levels of measurement. The levels, or scales, of measurement, indicate how precisely data is recorded. The higher the level, the more complex the measurement is. The ratio level contains all of the features of the other 3 levels. Finally, in ratio measurement, there is always an absolute zero, meaning we can construct a meaningful fraction (or ratio) with a ratio variable.

**Levels and Classification of Educational Measures**

A candidate’s achievement may be viewed at three different levels

1)**Self-referenced** -In this, we get to know how the student is progressing concerning himself/herself.

2)**Criterion-referenced** -Here we get to know how the student is progressing concerning the criteria set by the teacher. Criterion-referenced individual scores are interpreted in terms of the student’s performance relative to some standard or criterion.

3)**Norm-referenced **-It shows how the student is progressing concerning his/her classmates or peer group. Norm-referenced-individual scores are interpreted relative to the scores of others in a well-defined Norming group.

**What are the 3 types of measurement?**

**1)Direct**. The length and breadth of a table involve direct measurement and this is always accurate if the tool is valid.

**2)Indirect**: To know the quantity of heat contained by a substance involves indirect measurement for we have to first find our the temperature of the substance with the help of a thermometer and then we can calculate the heat contained by the substance.

**3)Relative**: To measure the intelligence of a person involves relative measurement, for the score obtained by that particular person in an intelligence test is compared with norms.