Gagne’s theory of learning

According to this notion, there are many kinds or stages of learning. These divisions are important since each category necessitates a distinct approach to education. Gagne considers linguistic knowledge, intellectual abilities, cognitive strategies, physical skills, and attitudes as the five main areas of learning. Certain internal and external variables are required for each form of learning. For instance, to acquire cognitive methods, learners must have the opportunity to practise coming up with novel solutions to problems; similarly, to learn attitudes, learners must be subjected to a reliable role model or convincing reasoning.

According to Gagne, “the following cognitive learning activities can be arranged in a hierarchy of complexity: stimulus identification, response production, process following, use of terminology, discrimination, idea creation, rule application, and problem solving.”

The hierarchy’s principal objective is to outline the requirements for progressing to the next stage of instruction. Requirements are discovered by doing a thorough analysis of a learning or training activity. Education structures promote the order of instruction.

Characteristics of Gagne’s theory of learning

The concept also identifies nine instructional activities and associated cognitive processes:

  • Gaining attention (reception).
  • Informing learners of the objective (expectancy).
  • Stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval).
  • Presenting the stimulus (selective perception).
  • Providing learning guidance (semantic encoding).
  • Eliciting performance (responding).
  • Providing feedback (reinforcement).
  • Assessing performance (retrieval).
  • Enhancing retention and transfer (generalization)..

Importance of Gagne’s conditions of learning

Gagne’s instructional design model consists of learning objectives and how to set up certain learning activities to attain those results. It is known as an information processing model of the psychological activities that happen when humans are exposed to diverse stimuli.

By giving the lesson plans a framework and a comprehensive perspective, Gagne’s nine-step model is a great approach to guarantee an efficient and organized learning program. The installation of a peritoneal (ascitic) drain is a regular approach that young doctors must master. In this study, we employ Gagne’s “events of teaching” to create teaching material for this topic.

Elements of Gagne’s conditions of learning

The Conditions of Learning Theory of Gagné is supported by the below mentioned components:

  • Conditions of Learning
  • Association Learning
  • The Five Categories of Learning Outcomes
  • The Nine Events of Instruction

What are the 5 categories of learning according to Gagne?

  1. Intellectual skills:

Intellectual skills are the first group in the cognitive domain and describe how to follow instructions to complete tasks. Inside the realm of intellectual capabilities, there are five developmental stages:

  • discrimination
  • concrete concept
  • defined concept
  • rule and
  • problem-solving
  1. Cognitive strategy:

Cognitive strategies are the second kind of cognitive ability. There are a few techniques known as “metacognitive methods” that may be used for both learning and thinking. Among the learning techniques are:

  • rehearsal, which is repeating it aloud or duplicating and marking the content
  • elaboration, in which the learner gathers information, summarizes concepts, condenses data, and provides answers to queries.
  • concept mapping and meaningfully arranging ideas are both parts of organization

Metacognitive strategies:

  • goal-setting 
  •  progress monitoring
  • adjusting tactics
  1. Verbal information:

Verbal information, the third component in the cognitive domain, is presented utilizing a variety of methods to help with memory recall. Students connect with the material more quickly and retain it better when using images and other mnemonic techniques. The employment of learning techniques is intended to give one’s memory signals since spoken information frequently consists of a large number of events, locations, and identities. Declarative knowledge may be learned through organizing, elaborating, and practicing.

  1. Motor skills:

Motor skills are physical acts that are evaluated in complicated undertakings like snowboarding, gymnastics, cycling, or writing things with a pen. They are the only subcategory in the psychomotor domain. These motions are assessed based on their precision, fluidity, rapidity, or strength. Because of the synchronized reaction needed, motor skills are also known as psychomotor skills. The term “part skills” also refers to the component skills that make up psychomotor skills.

  1. Attitude:

Due to its special condition, attitude is located in the affective realm. Since each person must express their unique opinions, measuring attitude may be difficult. We can gauge students’ sentiments by using self-reported surveys, for instance. Even if it is a state of mind, attitude may be seen in one’s own decisions or deeds.