The Indian Education Commission 1882 (The Hunter Commission) recommended that an examination in the principles and practice of teaching be instituted, success in which should hereafter be a condition of permanent employment as a teacher in any Secondary School, Government or Aided. For graduates it suggested a shorter course of training than for others. Pedagogical courses became more prominent. This also led to the opening of new teacher training institutions and by 1882 there were 116 training institutions for men and 15 for women. Thus by the close of the 19th century some essential things in teacher training had been established. Pedagogical courses had replaced general education, examinations and certificates in teacher training had been instituted and practical aspects in planning and teaching were emphasized.
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