John Dewey is recognized for creating the "pragmatism" school of thought, and his theories on knowledge and training have had a lasting impact on society at large. In contrast to passive consumers of preexisting information, he believed that education should cultivate thinking, critically reflective, and socially involved people. He disapproved of the curriculum-driven, memorization technique that was the prevalent teaching strategy at the time. As the primary activity of such an educational method, he devised the idea of inquiry, which is motivated by a need and is accompanied by intellectual effort like outlining issues, testing ideas, and coming up with workable answers. This natural progression of skepticism, research, contemplation, and the restoration of sense or comprehension stood in contrast to the "reflex arc" concept.
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