There are three basic approaches to gathering data:
- observational method,
- case study method, and
- survey method.
- Observational method: With no involvement from the participants directly, the observational approach enables researchers to gather data solely on their perception of the activity and features of the participants. To comprehend human behavior, it is frequently used in market analysis, psychology, and several other social scientific studies. It is the most efficient way to do descriptive research and is also a crucial component of practical scientific study. It is possible to categorize this procedure as either quantitative or qualitative.
- Case Study Method: A case study is an example of a subgroup of a larger group, such as an individual, a group of individuals, an organization, an occurrence, etc., whose features are used to identify the scope of the bigger group. It is possible to generalize the knowledge gained from studying a case study to benefit a broader audience. Nevertheless, since case studies are insufficient to generate reliable predictions about bigger populations, this generalization may be dangerous. Case studies don't lend themselves well to generalization.
- Survey Research: This approach to data collection is fairly common in research designs. Researchers design a survey or questionnaire for survey research and disseminate it to participants who provide responses. In practice, it is utilized to do thorough quantitative and qualitative research as well as quickly gather data from the source. Survey research occasionally combines qualitative and quantitative methods.
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