QuestionsWhat are the 4 types of operant conditioning?
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admin answered 3 months ago
Reinforcements: A particular behavior will be encouraged and strengthened by reinforcement that comes soon after the activity. Two forms of reinforcement exist:
  • Positive reinforcement: It happens when an action has a positive effect, such as when a dog receives a reward for following instructions or a kid gets a commendation from their instructor for acting well in class. These strategies raise the chances that the subject will engage in the desired conduct once more in order to reap the benefits of the prize.
  • Negative reinforcement: It happens when a behavior removes an unpleasant experience, such as when a monkey hits a particular lever and the researcher stops shocking it with electric shocks. As a result of the monkey's desire to eliminate the adverse electric shocks once more, the lever-pressing behavior in this instance is encouraged.
Skinner also distinguished between two categories of reinforcers.
  • Primary reinforcers, such as food, which is inherently appealing, automatically reinforce behavior.
  • Since we have come to identify conditioned reinforcers with main reinforcers rather than because they are intrinsically pleasant, they serve to reinforce behavior. For example, fiat currency is not intrinsically desired, but it may be used to buy things that are, like basic necessities.
  Punishment: The counterpart of reinforcement is punishment. When a behavior is followed by punishment, it is discouraged and made weaker. There are two types of sanctions.
  • Positive punishment: it happens when an action is accompanied by a negative result, such as when a parent whacks a youngster after the child says a derogatory phrase.
Negative punishment: It happens when an action results in the withdrawal of doing something positive, such as when a parent withholds a kid's weekly payment because the youngster behaved badly.