Although Shaver opposes a direct and focused system of moral education, he offers some fundamental suggestions for teaching or directing kids in this approach. These factors include:
- identification and clarification of values:
- label generalization
- value conflict analysis and
- qualified decision-making.
- Identification and clarification of values: Nearly all of us encounter conflict between ideals and practical ideals in daily life. Although we might choose one over the other in theory, in practice we tend to be more pragmatic. For instance, even though we may theoretically engage in equality before the law, we often give our close relatives or friends particular regard. However, because values are dimensional classifications, they must be explained and investigated in actual decision-making contexts in order to be applied.
- Label generalization: it is what Shaver refers to as placing moral standards in the context of principles. When an adult tries to quiet a youngster, the child could respond, "I have a right to do what I want." as an example. The virtue she is referring to in this instance is what is often known as "freedom of expression."
- Value conflict analysis: When passing judgment, we frequently encounter a value conflict. It is an instance when two or more values are vying for attention. For instance, you could support the dominant part principle, but you still need to defend the rights of the minority. Moral conundrums arise in real-world circumstances. The instructor must create these conundrums in the classroom through open debate. Shaver advises the use of analogies to resolve more complex conundrums. They might assist in making logical decisions.
- Qualped decision-making: Shaver means "one that takes into account the possible negative consequences of an action to be supported and the circumstances under which one can support a different value." In most conflict situations, judgment cannot be made simply or categorically. Thus, finding standards or guidelines by which to discern between two circumstances marked by divergent values is necessary.
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