Discuss the chief constituents of Educational Management?
The following are the chief constituents of educational planning:
- Educational Planning,
- Educational Administration
- Educational Direction
- Educational Co-ordination
- Educational Supervision
- Educational Controlling, and
- Educational Evaluation.
Planning implies a basic function that is how the aims and objectives are to be realized. Before launching upon a particular educational programme and implementing it the person or authority in-charge or at the helm of affairs is required to take decisions about the methods and strategies for effectively and efficiently achieving the objectives. This means planning has to be done for managing the total educational programme and for this, the basic facts and figures, background, date and profile are necessary.
As educational plan for making efforts to plan and bring deliberate change stands in the system of education for achieving identified and relevant objectives. Modern planning which are prevailing now and top most necessity of the prevailing society needs to be democratic, scientific and decentralised. There must be adequate participation of all concerned in the planning process. The decisions which can affect others must be taken in consultation with others.
“Grassroot Planning” is therefore encouraged which means planning from bottom, not from top. Decisions need be taken from within not from without.
Educational Administration plays a vital role in making management of every educational programme grand success. It is a specialized set of organisational functions whose primary purpose is to ensure the efficient and effective delivery of relevant educational services as well as implementation of legislative policies through planning, decision making and leadership behaviour. This keeps an organisation to make focus on predetermined objectives of the programme or system.
According to Graham Balfore, “Educational Administration is to enable the right pupils to receive the right educational administration is to enable the right teacher at a cost within the means of the state under conditions which will enable the pupils best to profit by their training.”
J.B. Sears, to him “Educational Administration contains much that we mean by the word government and is closely related in content to such words as supervision, planning, oversight, direction, organisation, control, guidance and regulation.”
An organisation be defined as stable pattern of interaction, among conditions or groups having a collective identity (a name and a location) pursuing interest and achieving given tasks and co-ordinated through a system of authority. Organisations are social units deliberately constructed and reconstructed to seek specific goals.
Here it is essential to mention that the educational organisations or institutions are also considered as the social organisations. So schools, colleges, universities and training institutions may well be considered as social organisations. Educational organisation means two things; one is the educational institution and the other is organisation of resources. Let us discuss the organisation of resources first and then the educational organisation or institution.
All types of resources meant for the educational programme are organised or made available in an organisation or institution for realizing the educational objectives or goals that are prefixed. Because poor organisation leads to wastage and bad outcomes.
Interpersonal relations need to be improved for making an organisation effective and adequate. Any formal organisation has to be strengthened and supported by informal network of personal contacts and relations. There should be decentralisation of facilities, delegation of powers and greater autonomy among the personnel.
The hierarchical structure of administration is to be vested upon every person involved in the programme. It is desirable to create the feeling of involvement and to develop adequately various advisory and consultative services within the organisations. Here the educational organisation means the school organisation.
The school organisation is a combination of two words. One is school and the other is organisation. In order to understand the meaning of school organisation, it is essential to understand the meaning of school and organisation separately.
But as our concern is to know the features of school organisation, let us know it’s different features.
- All teachers without any discrimination should get the same facilities.
- Teachers should get equal pay for equal work and similar qualifications.
- Provisions for retirement and the corresponding benefits should be the same for all teachers.
- Rules for the appointment of teachers should be the same.
- Conditions of service should be the same despite differences in management.
It is essential that there must be an authority or an order or a policy for providing direction to the management of every educational programme and for taking decisions in solving the problems. For this direction is necessary for giving leadership in order to implement the programmes and carrying out the entire management. Democratisation of management seeks to encourage the pride, enjoyment and growth among the individuals working in the organisation. Each individual must work according to his needs, interests and capabilities.
For making smooth management of every educational programme for resulting in adequate realization of its goals or objectives, there is need of ensuring co-ordination and co-operation among the multifarious resources. Through this coordination all facilities will be unified and all services are harmonized. So through this aspect of educational management different kinds of resources especially human resources have to be interrelated or co-ordinated for utilizing the resources properly in an effective manner.
Educational administration and supervision are now regarded as the total process of making any educational programme a grand success. For this, there is the need of ensuring and maintaining good inter-personal relationships between the administrator and supervisor, the supervisor and teachers, teachers and pupils, school and community etc.
Educational supervision is the means to co-ordinate stimulate and direct the growth of the teachers, to stimulate and direct the growth of every individual pupil through the exercise of his talents towards the achievement of richest goals. In the modern perspective, educational supervision is an expert technical service primarily concerned with studying and improving the conditions that surround learning and pupil growth. So educational supervision is now conceived as process which has for its purpose for the general improvement of the total teaching-learning situation.
Controlling is exercised through proper technique that is the evaluation. Controlling is not similar to evaluation but it is meant to fulfill the purposes of evaluation. In order to fulfill the purposes of evaluation, the techniques of control are the policies, the budget, auditing, time table, curriculum, personal records etc.
Educational controlling involves the human elements in relation to the management of an educational programme. Both men and women involved in the educational programme should have to discharge their duties efficiently and effectively by being controlled.
Being the last but not the least aspect of educational management, educational evaluation is an integral part of it as it determines the degree of realisation of educational objectives or goals as well as the effectiveness of it; for this there must be evaluation short-term or long-term, periodic or continuous and formal or informal.
This is necessary for bringing about improvement as desired in the management of educational institutions in the light of past experiences that may be failure or success or both. It is also desirable that both internal and external agencies need be involved in evaluating the achievement and performance of the individuals concerned with management.
Various systems and subsystems should be assessed and reviewed from time to time. For this evaluation of student’s achievement and teachers performance should be done in a comprehensive and continuous way.
At last in the light of above discussion on the scope of educational management it can be strongly said that the management of any educational programme will be meaningful and successful if there will be proper coordination and integration among its different aspects. The reason is that all these aspects are interrelated and interdependent.