What are the Main characteristics and levels of school management?


Educational Management, then, is the executive function that concerns itself with the carrying out of the administrative policy laid down by educational administrators. Following are it’s of school management:

Educational assessment:

It is a systematic assessment of future conditions by inferences from known facts today. We should collect all sorts of information about the present position of the system, its present and expected resources and try to form a picture in terms of the expected philosophy in a particular country.

Educational decision making:

After considering various alternatives and weighting the consequence of each course of action, a choice must be made; a course of action must be determined. Decision making is a key factor in educational administration as here we have to think of generations which will be affected by the policies decided. Guess work, arbitrary exercise of authority, ill-considered hasty decisions have no place in educational administration.

Education planning:

The plan should be flexible, there should be enough scope of change to cater for any unforeseen situation. There are many variables: the priorities may change due to unforeseen circumstances; personal may be posted out or proceed on leave all these variables contributing to the non-implementation of decisions. The very existence of variables and uncertainties and decision-making and planning is a necessity.

Education Organisation:

Organisation is the combination of necessary human efforts, material equipments brought together in systematic and effective correlation to accomplish the desired results.

In education, we organise

  • Human beings into schools, classes, committees, groups, school staffs, human efforts;
  • Materials into buildings, furniture and equipment, libraries, laboratories, workshops, museums and art galleries;
  • Ideas and principles in school systems curricular and co-curricular activities, time schedules, norms of achievement and the like.

Educational direction or motivation:

It is the process of guiding the human effects for achieving the target. The modern term for the direction is motivation i.e. to make the man to be cheerfully willing to do the job we want him to do. Involvement in deciding policies and plans help in motivation. Communication, down, up and across is also of great importance to the motivation of organisation members. Face to face communication is quite useful if organisation members are to be motivated to do their best.

Educational control:

The manager must constantly check on his teams and his own performance to see that it corresponds to the standards laid down. The manager needs to take corrective in the form of adjustments to the physical environment of work, modification and addition to materials and methods, or review of personnel in terms of their spirits, abilities and motivation to achieve the targets.

Educational Co-ordination by Nursery Teacher Training:

It is the process of harmonising in a uniform programme of educational service all the elements- the person, materials and ideas knowledge and principles and so to interweave them as to achieve a common objective and a single effect. To carry on the difficult talk of co-ordination properly, the administrator should have the management competence to see clearly,

  • The relations among people;
  • The allocation of tasks;
  • The division of labour necessary to organizational achievement.


School level management includes professional personnel who are responsible for school management / administration. It includes principals, assistant principals, headmasters, assistant headmasters, and other management staff with similar responsibilities. It does not include however receptionists, secretaries, clerks, and other staff who support the administrative activities of the school.