Role of information and communication technology in education
ICTs are causing rapid social transformation. They have an impact on every element of life. Schools are starting to see the effects more and more. Because ITs give instructors and students greater flexibility in tailoring their instruction to each student’s requirements, society is pressuring schools to adopt this technological advancement. According to Tinio (2002), ICTs have the ability to increase access to education in underdeveloped nations while also enhancing its relevance and quality. The potentials of ICT are further outlined by Tinio as follows:
ICTs significantly improve knowledge acquisition and retention, providing developing nations with previously unheard-of chances to improve educational institutions, strengthen the creation and implementation of public policies, and increase opportunities for the underprivileged and for business. ICTs may offer access to information in ways that were previously unthinkable. Isolation is one of the major struggles faced by the poor and by many people who reside in the poorest countries.
According to Watson (2001), ICTs have transformed how people operate today and are currently changing educational institutions. As a result, if schools just teach students yesterday’s technology and abilities, they might not be useful in the world of tomorrow. ICTs should receive recognition and attention on a worldwide scale for this reason alone. ICTs, for instance, may be relied upon to help accomplish, as one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) stipulates, elementary education for everyone by the year 2015.
Former UN Secretary General Kofi Anan emphasises the need for information and communication technology (ICTs) to open the door to education systems if we are to achieve the objective of universal primary education by 2015. This demonstrates the rising demand for and potential importance of (ICTs) in education. Since ICTs provide students and instructors more flexibility in adapting their instruction to individual requirements, society is pressuring schools to respond appropriately to this technological advancement.
Even though ICTs are an important part of developing nations’ equalisation strategies, the reality of the digital divide—the gap between those who have access to and manage technology and those who do not—has a substantial impact on how ICTs are used. This indicates that the most difficult task is introducing and integrating ICTs into diverse types and levels of schooling. The knowledge gap and already-existing economic and social disparities between rich and developing nations would grow if the issues weren’t met.
The Benefits of ICT in Education
ICT usage is significantly altering how students learn and how teachers approach their lessons. Over the past 20 years, Western schools have made significant investments in ICT infrastructures, and students now utilise computers more often and for a considerably wider variety of purposes (Volman, 2005). According to a number of studies, pupils who use ICT facilities often make larger learning gains than those who do not. For instance, the results of Kulik’s (1994) analysis of 75 research conducted in the US revealed the information below.
On exams in mathematics, natural science, and social science, students who used computer tutorials do noticeably better. Science students who utilised simulation software also performed better. The results also showed that reading tutoring software greatly increased the reading scores of elementary school kids. On reading proficiency tests, very young pupils who wrote their own stories on computers performed considerably better. Students who utilised word processors or other forms of computer-based writing also performed better on tests of writing ability.
To increase the efficacy and efficiency of education at all levels and in both formal and non-formal contexts, however, there has been an increasing emphasis in recent years. ICTs serve as the handmaiden for educational activities as ideas describing learning processes change. Voogt (2003) characterised ICTs as a study object, a component of a field or profession, and a medium of teaching in his definition of the key functions.
ICTs are well suited to actualize and apply the developing constructivism pedagogy as a medium of teaching (Davis, 1997; Office of Technology Assessment, 1995; Panel on Educational Technology, 1997; Watson, 1996) in Voogt’s theory (2003). Additionally, Voogt (2003) distinguished between constructivist methods and conventional learning environments. The former views education as the teacher’s exclusive job to transmit knowledge to students.
Contrarily, the constructivist method views learning as genuine and learner-centered. ICT, such as the computer, is very helpful in the constructivist approach since it allows one to create simulated and customised learning environments for students. ICTs are having an influence on how teachers teach in the classroom.
They have made a sizable contribution to alterations in instructional strategies, educational innovation, and community services. According to a study of the literature by Kozma (2005), there are three important issues to think about when analysing how ICTs will affect education.
First, student outcomes include improved academic performance or the acquisition of completely new skills necessary for a growing economy.
Second, we should take into account teacher and classroom results, including the improvement of teachers’ attitudes toward teaching as well as the development of their technological proficiency and awareness of new pedagogical techniques.
Finally, one must take into account additional results, such as improved school innovation and community members’ access to adult education and literacy programmes.