Sampling and its Types

Sampling is the process of choosing a sample from a participant or a large population for a particular type of research goal. We can occasionally wonder, “Why is sampling necessary?” The reason we utilize sampling in research studies is that a survey would be extremely costly and complex to poll the entire population.

It is crucial to how we choose a sample of people to participate in our study. The population to whom we may generalize our study findings will depend on how we choose individuals (random sampling). It will be determined whether discrimination exists in our treatment groups by the method we utilize to randomly assign individuals to various treatment circumstances.

Types of Sampling:

A sample is a collection of individuals, things, or things collected from a large population for assessment in a study. So sampling is done to obtain reliable data.

For example, it would be difficult to inspect every chip created in a factory to see if they were acceptable or not, so we would choose one at random and assess its flavour, size, and thickness.

Therefore, sampling is a crucial research method when there is a huge population. There are  two categories based on this: two categories based on this: 

  • Probability 
  • Non-probability

what is population and sample in research

The word “population” refers to all individuals who satisfy a given set of requirements, or criteria. For example, the whole population of the United States is referred to as the country’s population. An element is a single person within any given population. A sample is when only a portion of the population is chosen; a census is when the whole population is included.

A population in research doesn’t usually refer to humans. It may refer to a collection of whatever you desire to investigate, including things, occasions, groups, nations, species, and animals.

Collecting data from a population:

Whenever your research issue calls for or allows you access to data from every member of the population, populations are utilized. Data collection from a large population is typically only simple when the population is small, approachable, and cooperative. It is sometimes challenging or unattainable to get data from every person in bigger and more scattered groups.

Collecting data from a sample:

Using a sample is essential when your community is sizable, spread regionally, or challenging to reach. Utilizing statistical analysis, you may calculate or test a hypothesis regarding population statistics using sample data. A sample should ideally be drawn at random from the population and be reflective of it. The danger of sample bias is decreased and internal and external legitimacy is improved when probability sampling techniques are used, such as simple random sampling or stratified sampling.

Researchers commonly employ non-probability sampling techniques for practical reasons. Non-probability samples are selected based on a set of factors; they could be easier to get access to or less expensive. Any findings and conclusions about the bigger population will be lower than with a probability sample due to the non-random selection techniques.

Population parameter vs. sample statistic

There are several metrics and figures you may derive from data collected from a population or sample. An indicator of the entire population is referred to as a parameter. A measure that characterizes the sample is a statistic.

To determine the likelihood that a sample statistic deviates from the population parameter, estimation or hypothesis testing might be used.

What is a sampling error?

A sampling error is a variance between a sample statistic and a population parameter. Even when using a randomly chosen sample, sampling mistakes might still occur. This is because random samples differ from the population in terms of numerical quantities like means and standard deviations.

Since the goal of a scientific study is to generalize sample results to the population, a low sampling error is preferred. By increasing the sample size, sampling error may be minimized.