Type of teacher education was during British period

Before the British arrived in India, European missionaries established scholars and, later, teacher training institutions. The Danish Missionaries established a normal school for teacher training in Serampur, near Calcutta. The first normal school in Madras was established in June 1826, with the British government managing and funding it. Initially, it trained teachers for district schools. This normal school later became the Presidency College. Bombay established a normal school in the Elphinstone Institution in 1847, and Calcutta followed suit in 1849.

1854 Wood’s Despatch

On July 19, 1854, the significant educational publication The Wood’s Dispatch was published. It was properly dubbed the most important paper on English education in India. It made some really good proposals for improving teacher education. It advised that allowances be made to people who have a talent for teaching and are prepared to devote their lives to the profession of schoolmaster.

Lord Stanley’s Dispatch, 1859

In his Dispatch of 1859, Lord Stanley, Secretary of State for India, examined the implementation of the 1854 Dispatch. The Dispatch declared unequivocally that the authorities should stop importing instructors from England and make teachers for vernacular schools available locally.

The Indian Education Commission 1882

The Indian Education Commission of 1882 (also known as the Hunter Commission) suggested that a teaching test be established, the passing of which would thereafter become a requirement for securing a permanent position as a teacher in any secondary school, whether public or private. It recommended a shorter training programme for graduates than for others. Courses in education become more common. As a result, more schools for teacher preparation began to develop, and by 1882 there were 116 for men and 15 for women. As a result, by the end of the 19th century, certain fundamental components of teacher preparation had been established. General education had been replaced with pedagogical courses, exams and certifications for teacher training had been implemented, and practical components of lesson preparation and instruction had been highlighted.

The Government of India Resolution on Education Policy 1913

The second resolution on educational policy identified the system’s flaws and made several helpful recommendations for enhancing Primary education. The Resolution recommended that instructors be chosen from the class of the boys they will instruct and that they have completed a year of training in addition to passing the middle vernacular exams. It proposed that instructors take regular review and development courses. The resolution underlined the need for continual idea exchange among training college staff members as well as for them to tour other institutions. It further said that no instructor should be permitted to teach without a credential.

The Hartog Committee, 1929

The Hartog Committee continued the work started by the Sadler Commission.

Although the Committee’s focus was mostly on elementary education, it also offered significant suggestions for teacher preparation. It correctly noted that teacher quality, prestige, and compensation all contributed to the effectiveness of education. It was proposed that people who were familiar with rural society should be hired as instructors in rural regions. Additionally, it stated that the training time was too brief, the curriculum was too constrained, and the teaching personnel lacked acceptable credentials.