Characteristics of Mental retardation
1)Sub Average Intellectual functioning.
2) Their intellectual functioning is less than average(Below 80 IQ on an Intelligence test) 3)Limited functioning: Their level of functioning is very limited. They have difficulty not only in learning but also doing routine life job.
4)Low level of Adaptive skills: They are not only slow in acquiring skills but also poor in adaptive skills.
5) Early Manifestations: Mental Retardation manifests itself before the age of 18. From this perspective, mental retardation is viewed as a disorder of the life period characterized by the slow rate of development.
6)Poor performance level: If someone falls short in the performance of certain tasks from the performance of majority of children of his own age, he is said to have low mental age.
7)Slow acquisition of skills: Academic and non academic both types of skills are acquired by them at a very slow rate.
Needs and problems of Mental retarded children
1)Children with intellectual disabilities may become frustrated easily, have difficulty following directions and be unable to communicate their feelings and needs verbally.
2)Caring for an intellectually disabled child can be time-consuming, leaving little time for parents to address their own needs and interests.
3)Provision of public education: Efforts should be made to arouse the public to adapt preventive measures for controlling mental retardation.
4)Providing special education: Mentally retarded children, by their characteristics, needs and specialties, need the provision of special education and training for meeting their special needs related to their development and adaptability to their environment.
5)Mentally retarded children may have “considerable problems in everyday functioning,” Some children with intellectual disabilities are able to attend school and participate in social activities, while others may require a specialized mental health and occupational therapy.
6) Mentally retarded children experience mild depression, feelings of worthlessness and helplessness. As these children grow older, they become lonely and unable to adjust in society.
7)Mentally retarded children suffer from general structural and functional inferiority of the entire organism. These children learn to talk and walk at a much later stage. Defective speech and shuffling gait are two very prominent characteristics of these children.
8).Among the retardants, it is rare to find individuals who may be described as dynamic, charming, forceful, vicious, obnoxious or outstanding. Many mentally retarded children are colourless and tractable.