Levels—Fundamental, Applied, and Action:

Fundamental, applied, and action research are the three categories into which educational research may be divided according to usefulness.

Fundamental Research

Gaining new information is the main goal of fundamental research, which also aims to offer perspectives on the study’s factors. Fundamental research doesn’t address any particular issues.

Applied research

is a research strategy that, as its name indicates, aims to address particular issues. Insights from applied research help address real-world issues in the field of education, such as enhancing teaching strategies, changing curriculum, and streamlining methodology.

Action research

is designed to address current issues unique to a setting, such as the educational difficulties in a nearby elementary school. Action research aims to answer broad or all-encompassing problems in the educational field and to propose solutions that are applicable in this situation.

Fundamental Research’s Benefits and Drawbacks:

Fundamental research has benefits that are viewed as drawbacks for applied research, and vice versa. To increase the level of information in any area, fundamental research is crucial. Fundamental research conclusions are often relevant to a multitude of environments and circumstances. Fundamental investigations typically lack fixed constraints and are motivated by the researcher’s interest.

Fundamental research also has drawbacks, but less so. The practical relevance of this sort of research’s findings is minimal to nonexistent. In other words, basic research does not provide solutions to particular and immediate commercial issues.

Applied Research Benefits and Drawbacks:

The benefits and drawbacks of applied and basic research are similar and opposite. On the plus side, applied research may be advantageous in resolving particular issues in commercial and other contexts.

The results of applied research cannot often be generalized, which is a drawback. The new information created as a consequence of this sort of study is therefore only applicable to the research issue. Furthermore, there are sometimes rigid deadlines for practical studies.

Action Research Benefits and Drawbacks:


  • High degree of management study’s practical significance;
  • Can be applied to both qualitative and quantitative data.
  • Chance of learning all there is to understand the issue.


  • Challenges in separating research from the activity and ensuring the implementation of both.
  • Action research projects can experience delays owing to a variety of factors.
  • Absence of precision and reproducibility.


Fundamental research:

The newly created information might not be immediately used or needed, and neither is it done for the instant benefit or issue solutions. It could be done to develop a theory or just out of interest. This type of study includes the best experiments and excursions. Why did he go to the moon? S. R. Ranganathan’s five laws of library science were developed as a theoretical study in our profession. The majority of the research is done at academic and allied institutions.

Applied research:

Applied research is research done to address a current issue in theory or practice. It has a practical bent. As an illustration, consider “Action research,” “Case Studies,” “Clinical Research,” and “Research and Development,” or R&D. The majority of data collected by divisions of commerce, industry, the military, and the government is applied or practical.

Action research:

The focus is on a neighbourhood issue that requires the researcher and librarian to work together to identify and resolve a library issue. Research + action equals action (knowledge generated). As it passes through many cycles, it is intended to bring about gradual and incremental development in practice.