Wood’s Despatch (1854)
1. It is considered as the “Magna Carta of English Education in India” and contained a comprehensive plan for spreading education in India.
2. It states the responsibility of the State for the spread of education to the masses.
3. It recommended the hierarchy education level- At the bottom, vernacular primary school; at district, Anglo-vernacular High Schools and affiliated college, and affiliated universities of Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras Presidency.
4.Recommended English as a medium of instruction for higher studies and vernacular at school level.
Origin of Wood’s Dispatch
1)The education system of the present India is the gift of Charles Wood.
2)The East India Company policy to change/renew charter after every 20 years.
3) In 1853 the Parliamentary board surveyed Indian education system and concluded that there was a huge need for education.
4)Wood was the President and he sent the report to East Indian Company and the report was forwarded as a dispatch to Indian government on 19th July, 1854 and this is known as Wood’s dispatch of 1854.
Aims of Education
1)The aim of providing education to Indian is to make them suitable and supporter for British Government.
2) He wanted to increase intellectual and moral character of Indians.
Importance of Oriental Languages
He emphasized/highlighted the use of Indian language to make them learn about western knowledge. He emphasized the use of oriental languages like Sanskrit, Arabic, and Persian also.
Medium of Instruction
1)In higher education English was going to be language for instruction. When ever there was a need English was to be taught.
2)They wanted to introduce scholarship on the basis of excellence. European knowledge should be given in English language and for other knowledge Indian language was to be used.
Establishment of Education Department
They wanted to Establish Department of Public Instruction in every Province(id). The responsibility of department to inspect schools and guide the teachers in other fields.
Establishments of Universities .
a)Dispatch also recommended establishment of universities for higher education at Madras, Calcutta and Bombay.
b)In 1857, these universities also established there it was a huge step.
Expansion of Mass Education
1)That time mass education was not there so dispatch emphasized that knowledge should be given to mass public because people were deprived of education and education was limited for rich.
2) To fulfil this recommendation so many primary, middle (foundation stone for basic
1)They also recommended to grant aid to institutions and to teachers for improvement of both.
2)Training of Teachers
3)Dispatch also recommended to provide proper training to teachers, so that they could teach well.
Education of women
Emphasis on women education.
Minority education should be enhanced.
There is huge demand for vocational study but that is to make future generation job ready.
Education for employment
Educated people should be preferred for government jobs.
Policy of religious neutrality
Dispatch directed to follow neutral policy of religion in education and should be secular.
Merits of Wood’s Dispatch
3)Importance of Indian literature and culture
4)Indian languages as medium of instruction
5)Department of public instruction
6)Establishment of Universities
7)Expansion of mass
8)Education solution of unemployment
9)Training of teachers
Demerits of Wood’s Dispatch
1)Defective system of education (just to earn money not the purpose of knowledge).
2) Inspire British nature in India (Universities based on London.
3)Gave priority to English (Extension of English medium school is their main motto)
4)Spreading western knowledge
5)Mechanical control of the government
6)No real vocational education was given
7)Develop Christian missionaries.
8)Lack of specific Aims Lack of flexibility
10)Examination centre (Rote learning no knowledge)