Wardha Scheme of Basic Education (1937)
1) Wardha Scheme of Education (1937) also known as Basic Education Nai Talim/Buniyadi talim. This scheme was the thinking of Mahatma Gandhi because he always believed that education as an effective tool for the national reconstruction.
2) On July 31, 1937, Gandhi had revealed an editorial within the untouchable. Primarily based upon this text, Associate in Nursing all India National Education Conference was hung on October twenty two and twenty three, 1937.
3) The president of this conference was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi himself.
4) The Wardha theme of Education derives its name from the education conference of National employees command at Wardha below the presidentship of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. 5)The theme is additionally referred to as Nai Talim/Basic Education/Buniyadi Talim (Shiksha)/Basic Shiksha.
5) The main aim of the Wardha theme of basic education was ‘learning through activities‘. A committee found out details of the theme to be enforced within the provinces below the place of Dr. Zakir Hussain.
who initiated the wardha education scheme in 1937
a)During second round table conference held in 1931 in London, Mahatma Gandhi pointed out the unsuccessfulness of primary education under the British rule.
b)He criticized the British policies for the ineffectiveness of Indian education.
c)Education as per Gandhi ji should be the holistic development (All round development).
d)So Gandhi ji published an article in weekly journal “Harijan” on July 31, 1937. on the basis of this article, on October 22 and 23 1937 an all India National Education Conference was held.
e)This conference was called Wardha Educational Conference.
Appointment of Dr.Zakir Hussain Committe
a)A committee was appointed and Dr. Zakir Hussain was appointed as the chairmen to frame the scheme of basic education.
b)The Committee also consisted other members including: Vinobha Bhave, Prof. K. G. Saigidain’s, Arya Nayakam, Prof. K. T. Shah, Kaka Kalelkar, J. C. Kumarappa, Kishori Lal.
c)The committee submitted the report and published in March 1938 and it was known as Wardha scheme of education.
d)The first report mentioned the basic principles of the Wardha Scheme of education, aims, training of teachers, administration, organisations of schools, inspection and craft centred education regarding handicrafts like spinning, weaving, etc. Included.
e)The second report included the metal work, wood craft, Agriculture and many other basic handicraft.
Features of wardha scheme of education
Provision of free and compulsory education for 8 years (from 6 to 14 years) and was to be given in two phases or stages:
a)Junior stage covering (5 years)
b)Senior stage (for 3 years)
1) Self-supporting education
The aim is to make individual ready for real and they can earn their bread and butter at later stage of life.
2)Craft centred education
The aim of this scheme was to also teach the basic craft or productive work. Handicraft was to be taught to students so that they can use it stop unfair use of power.
3)The medium of instruction
The language of instruction was to be mother tongue. Mother tongue help to speak, read and write correctly and effectively and also help to clarify the ideas and though process.
The idea of citizenship
This scheme aim to make future citizen who knows their value in the system, know the
opportunities for personal growth, dignity, and efficiency. The citizen should know their Rights and decision.
There was to be flexible curriculum and the teachers and students could work as per their interest and requirement. There was no pressure to complete a pre-arranged portion under the fear of examinations.
There was no recommendation for the religious education.
1)Basic Crafts: Spinning and Weaving, Agriculture, Carpentry, Leather work, Fruit and Flower Cultivation, Home Science for girls, Pottery.
Fish, Any handicraft according to the local need
2)Social Studies, mathematics, Music, Painting and sports, etc.
3)Hindi language was mandatory to learn where mother tongue is different and English was not included in the curriculum.
Advantages of Wardha Scheme Of Basic Education 1937
1) The scheme was financially good and was suitable for poor country like India.
2) The craft work was good for the intellectual and practical elements of experience.
3) By teaching the children basic crafts they can earn in future life and could be self dependent.
4) Mother tongue was to be used.
5) Free and compulsory education to be given.
6)There was no religious education to be given.
7)Only trained teachers were to be appointed and training of teachers also recommended.
8)No compulsion or fear of examination.
9)Use of Hindi was promoted and English was excluded.
Resolution at Wardha Conference
1. Free and required education for all.
It implies that oldsters won’t pay any fees for the education of kids and that they have to send their children to high school. It’s the foremost necessary way forward for basic education.
2. Seven years of education for all kids
Basic education emphasizes free and required education for seven years. i.e for completion of primary education. it’s a requirement for facultative kids to accumulate a minimum level of feat so as to steer a autonomous and civilized life.
3 Purposeful education
Any form of education are going to be purposeless unless it’s goal-oriented and purposeful keeping the on top of plan in sight, basic education centres around sure purposeful activities.
4 Education for the mass
The Wardha theme of education doesn’t touch the interest of anyone category for the cluster. It Lays stress on education for the entire population of the country no matter caste, creed, colour, sex, or economic standing.
5. First language as the medium of instruction
Instead of English, Gandhiji argued to create first language the medium of instruction in instructional establishments. Through first language, the kid will develop his power of understanding expression, reasoning, and thinking. Through first language, the kid can even develop his artistic power and literary that the Wardha theme of Education emphasizes to impact education to kids through the medium of first language.
6. Independent education
Wardha theme was supported the principle of self-direction or independent. It implies that the assembly created by craftwork like spinning and weaving might meet the teacher’s price in education, as a result, Wardha theme might minimize the economic burden on the govt.
7. Craft focused education
Craft-centered education implies that craft should be the place to begin of all different subjects.
The craft was the middle of the entire teaching-learning method.
8. Child-centered education
Wardha theme is supposed to be child-centered because the entire programme, contains the important expertise gained by the kid through work and all running is related with the activities of the kid.
9. Related teaching
Gandhiji wished to use basic craft because the medium of teaching all data ought to be related with craft. All instructional activities should, therefore, be integrated and related with craft social surroundings and physical surroundings.
10. Education for comprehensive development
Education aim at the event of associate integrated and balanced responsibility for the kid. well-rounded development of the temperament of a toddler is geared toward Wardha theme. The Wardha theme of education was designed to develop intellectual physical social-emotional ethical and moral aspects of a child’s temperament.
Disadvantages of the Wardha Scheme of Basic Education (1937)
1)It was criticise that teaching craft in small age is not good and that would be after the age of 12 so that children can be mentally and physically grown.
2)The basic education might be not suitable for the high paced industrial future and the need of science and mathematics may become more desirable than the skills in handicrafts.
3)Less importance was given to secondary education.
4)The training of crafts and hand work may make children tired and could not learn academics well.
REASON FOR THE POSTPONEMENT OF WARDHA THEME OF BASIC EDUCATION:
1)The Wardha theme of basic education had to be delayed to the natural event of the Second war (1939-45) and also the resignation of Congress ministers from eight provinces.
2)In 1937, Wardha theme of education was projected by spiritual leader. However it absolutely was not enforced to resignation of Congress Ministries in 1939.
3)The situation of education was deteriorating in| India and British government realized that it would not stay detached from the issues of education in India.