Psychology (means “speech” in Greek; psych$, “soul,” “self,” or “mind”) Psychiatry (which literally means “to discuss the mind”) is a field of study and application that deals with the study of behavior and mental processes in science. Some friction exists between both scientific psychology and applied psychology (with their emphasis on empirical study) (handling a variety of topics).
The academic analysis of human experiences and interactions is known as psychology. Comprehension, Patterns of thought, and Affection are the three primary components of human experience. The “Science of Behavior” is how psychology is often described. The initial John B. Watson’s definition of “behavior” (1930) was overly limited. But when he later added “implicit behavior,” the obstacle was broken.
Definitions of Psychology
- John Dewey (1884): “Psychology is the science of the facts or phenomena of self’.
- Koffka (1886-1941): “Psychology is “the scientific study of behavior of living creatures in their contact with the outer world”.
- Mc Dougall (1973): “Psychology is “the science which aims to give us better understanding and control of the behavior of the organism as a whole”.
To make learning more helpful and objective, educational psychology applies many psychological ideas to it. The science of education aids the instructor in comprehending the growth of his pupils, the bounds and constraints of their abilities, the method of learning, and their social interactions.
Investigating how learners comprehend in classrooms, how effective educational interventions function, the psychology of instruction, and the social psychology of educational institutions as a whole are all part of the study of educational psychology. Despite the fact that the terms “educational psychology” and “school psychology” are frequently used interchangeably, professionals in schools and other settings are referred to as “school psychologists,” whereas theorists and researchers are more likely to be classified as educational psychologists. Educational psychology is concerned in how students learn and grow and focuses on subgroups such as talented children and persons with specific difficulties.
Adult psychology is not the same as child psychology. Adult psychology is built on their core interests, desires, and abilities (Rogers, 1986). The following describes adult psychology:
- He or she is more mature, i.e. completely formed. However, because none of us are ever sufficiently matured, this implies that they are making use of the abilities or propensities that they have already acquired. We will all change and develop, of course, but adults have already gained significant abilities and talents.
- He or she has formed a more reasonable point of view. A childlike person believes they are either extremely important and so require special attention, or they are not significant at all – they act like a pampered child or a neglected child. An adult has a better sense of balance. Likewise, we are all still developing our sense of proportion, but we have a notion of where we are and what we can and cannot accomplish.
- He or she is accountable for their own actions. They are often accountable for others (children, elderly parents and relatives, disabled individuals, and so on), but they are always accountable for oneself. Nevertheless, we are all improving in this department. Some of us want to avoid this independence or self-responsibility; for others (particularly women), society (particularly males) denies them much freedom to practice this accountability for themselves. But, in the end, we’re all gaining more and more independence.
When dealing with adult groups, the aforementioned qualities must be recognised. If an adult is appropriately engaged, he will use utmost effort to attain the goal. Explosive growth, motivation to work, conquering opposition to attain the objective, and discovering new instruments to accomplish the target characterizes behavioral responses.
Principles of adult learning
To comprehend the nature of adult learning, we must first recollect the adult learning principles. In this framework, we will now provide Knowles’ list of basic adult learning concepts (1978).
- Adults are encouraged to learn because they have demands and passions that learning may meet; hence, they are the best beginning points for designing adult educational activities. Adults, for example, will often undertake formal schooling only if it is relevant, valuable, or satisfying.
- Because an adult’s learning orientation is existence, the proper units for organizing adult learning are life circumstances rather than topics. Because experience is the most vital commodity for adult learning, the study of encounter is the primary technique of adult education.
- Adults have a strong desire to lead their own lives; thus, the goal of the adult educator is to participate in a process of mutual investigation with them, rather than simply impart information to them and then assess their compliance to it. Adults want instructors who will challenge and inspire them. Individual variations among persons appear to increase; consequently, adult education must account for variances in student learning, time, location, and speed.