value clarification model

It was claimed that certain values could not be regarded as stable and immutable, generically valid in all situations while establishing values.  Furthermore, we spoke about how propaganda is not educational in the truest meaning of the word since it is not a technique of moral teaching. 


The Value Clarification Model of moral education presents a strategy that is open-ended to the opposite extreme as opposed to the indoctrination technique of moral education, which holds that “values are objective, permanent, and unchanging.” The proponents of the value clarification technique have unmistakable and explicit presuppositions about the existence of values. They are as follows:

Values are a matter of personal opinion rather than being absolute and objective.

Although values are founded on certain standards, they are neither always correct nor incorrect. Each of us has values that we appreciate and love.

Increasing self-awareness is a key component of learning.

The society’s traditional moral standards have crumbled, and today’s moral plurality pushes people to make choices.

Importance of value clarification

Almost by essence, democratic existence necessitates and optimizes our ability to make value-based judgments and choices. However, a lot of factors come into play when we make such decisions. Students frequently come into contact with influences from their parents, peers, families, schools, religions, etc., all of which may be in conflict. As a result, the pupils continue to learn values through what may be referred to as the concealed curriculum. I frequently learnt obedience to authority. The youngster feels perplexed about choosing values or making value judgements in the face of such a vague social situation.


A method named “Valwing, Process” is an effort to reduce value conflict and positively influence a uniform set of values. Discovering strategies to avoid propaganda and encourage the use of reason in determining values is the main goal of this approach. This method involves three sub-processes: choosing, prizing, and behaving.

The value clarification places additional emphasis on four crucial components: a focus on “life,” acceptance of what is, a request to reflect more, and nourishing of personal strength. These essential components are described below:

  • Focus on Life: Focusing on real-world challenges helps students understand how their decisions represent a pyramid of values.
  • Acceptance:  Encourage the students to embrace both themselves and the world around them during the evaluation procedure. It is necessary to motivate people to be sincere with themselves.
  • An Invitation to Reflect Further: Learners should be assisted and expected to think about the principles they have adopted after embracing themselves and the circumstances as they are. For this, the instructor should encourage students to make better-informed decisions and to be more conscious of their daily actions in light of their values.
  • Nourishment of Personal Power: The proponents of value explanation have the firm belief that an individual (practitioner) develops a feeling of personal orientation and fulfilment as a consequence of a continuous process of clarifying values.

Theorists of value clarification contend that people who have a clear understanding of their place in society exhibit traits like positivity, intention, and consistency, whereas people who are unclear about their place in society exhibit traits like apathy, over dissent, over conformity, and conflicting behaviour with others. The value clarification model aims to offer a valuation method that may be taught to students to lessen their value uncertainty.


According to Hersh et al. (1980), the valuing procedure often retains the underlying three types of content:

  • Goals and ambitions are examples of value indicators.
  • Personal matters, such as inquiries concerning loyalty, love, marriage, and sexuality.
  • Social problems, such as the prevalence of poverty in neighbourhoods, discrimination, free expression, etc.

Value identification:

First, teachers and students both recognize value indications. Raths, Harmin, and Simen found up to eight value indicators. Which are:

  • Goals or purposes
  • Aspirations
  • Attitudes
  • Interests
  • Feelings
  • Beliefs and convictions
  • Activities
  • Worries, problems, and obstacles. 

Common classroom discourse reveals the value indicators. Even if these indications aren’t values in and of themselves, recognizing them aids in the development of educational environments that encourage the explanation of values.

Clarifying responses:

Since the entire value clarification process is a discussion between the instructor and the pupils, the teacher shouldn’t push his opinion of what is “good” or “wrong” throughout this valuation process. The instructor should foster an atmosphere where each student feels valued, free to express themselves, trusted to be honest or to keep silent, and encouraged to listen to others. It’s possible to keep in mind the following factors to clarify responses:

  • Avoid moralizing or focusing on appropriate or inappropriate actions.
  • Students should be assisted so that they can make their own decisions.
  • The goal should be to create a mood rather than alter behavior.
  • provoking the thought
  • The instructor is not required to directly address everything that is said or done in class.