Descriptive Research Method

A population, circumstance, or phenomenon is described as a kind of study in descriptive research. It is concentrated on addressing the how, what, when, and where issues. When a research issue, as opposed to the why.  This is mostly because it is critical to have a thorough knowledge of a research problem’s scope before looking into its root causes.

While inquiring as to why, for example, a potential investor in the volatile Holland property market has to be aware of the economy’s present state, its evolving nature (growing or declining), and its shifting timing (season). Descriptive research can help in this situation.

Types of Descriptive Research:

Depending on the specific method employed to perform descriptive research, there are several distinct forms of descriptive research. Here we list the several categories of descriptive research:

  1. Descriptive survey: Surveys are used in descriptive survey research to collect information on a variety of topics. This information seeks to determine the degree to which certain ailments can be found among such categories.
  2. Descriptive-normative survey: the normative component is an addition to the descriptive survey, which is what this is an expansion of. The report’s comparisons will be made to the standards in the descriptive-normative survey.
  3. Descriptive-status: This quantitative description approach aims to provide answers to queries concerning actual circumstances.
  4. Descriptive-analysis: The descriptive-analysis technique of investigation analyses a topic in more detail.
  5. Descriptive classification: In biomedical sciences, this approach is used to categorize both plants and animals. An investigator who wants to categorize marine life into distinct species will gather specimens from several monitoring sites and do so.
  6. Descriptive-comparative: In descriptive-comparative research, two unmanipulated factors are taken into account, and a formal process is established to determine which is superior.
  7. Correlative Survey: Correlative studies are performed to establish if there is a favourable, unfavourable, or balanced connection between two parameters. In other words, whether two parameters, such as X and Y, are directly proportional, inversely proportional, or unrelated.

Characteristics of Descriptive Research:

The description, uses, strategies for gathering data, and instances of descriptive research may all be used to emphasize the traits of this type of study. The following are some characteristics of descriptive research:

  • Quantitativeness: By gathering quantifiable data for the population sample’s statistical analysis, descriptive research employs a quantitative research methodology. When conducting physical science research, this occurs frequently.
  • Qualitativeness: The qualitative research approach may also be used to appropriately characterize the research study. Compared to investigative or empirical analysis, descriptive research is more informative.
  • Uncontrolled variables: Researchers are unable to manipulate the parameters in the descriptive study the way they can within the scientific investigation.
  • The basis for further research: The outcomes of descriptive research can be dissected deeper and used in various types of investigation. It can also guide future studies, such as the appropriate research design. This is because it offers fundamental details on the study issue, which may spark further inquiries like why a certain element is a way it is.

Procedure of Descriptive Research

There are three basic approaches to gathering data: 

  • observational method,
  • case study method, and 
  • survey method.
  1. Observational method: With no involvement from the participants directly, the observational approach enables researchers to gather data solely on their perception of the activity and features of the participants. To comprehend human behaviour, it is frequently used in market analysis, psychology, and several other social scientific studies. It is the most efficient way to do descriptive research and is also a crucial component of practical scientific study. It is possible to categorize this procedure as either quantitative or qualitative.

The goal acquisition of numerical data for quantitative observation involves examining statistical and numerical methodologies. Qualitative observation, on the other hand, focuses on personal qualities rather than quantitative data. From a distance, the researcher can make his assessment, which is then noted and used to develop inferences.

  1. Case Study Method: A case study is an example of a subgroup of a larger group, such as an individual, a group of individuals, an organization, an occurrence, etc., whose features are used to identify the scope of the bigger group. It is possible to generalize the knowledge gained from studying a case study to benefit a broader audience. Nevertheless, since case studies are insufficient to generate reliable predictions about bigger populations, this generalization may be dangerous. Case studies don’t lend themselves well to generalization.
  1. Survey Research: This approach to data collecting is fairly common in research designs. Researchers design a survey or questionnaire for survey research and disseminate it to participants who respond. In practice, it is utilized to do thorough quantitative and qualitative research as well as quickly gather data from the source. Survey research occasionally combines qualitative and quantitative methods.

Descriptive research is distinctive in that it may examine both quantitative and qualitative research techniques. As a result, analysts can employ a wide range of approaches to help the study process when performing descriptive research.