Concept of Guidance in Education
Guidance is the systematic professional process of helping by the ways of education, experience, and other possible means. Guidance is not teaching but it may be done by teachers, it is not a part of education but plays an essential part of the total education program. Some think that guidance and counseling as one but it’s not true by any means, guidance is a term broader than counseling and which includes counseling as one of its services.
There is no single definition of guidance by experts and authors, it is defined differently according to the needs and differing nature of societies.
- Definition of Guidance by crow and crow, “Guidance is assistance made available by competent counsellors to an individual of any age to help him direct his own life, develop his own point of view, make his own decision, carry his own burdens,”
- According to Tolbert, Guidance is the total programme or all the activities and services engaged in by an educational institution that are primarily aimed at assisting and individual to make and carry out adequate plans and to achieve satisfactory adjustments in all aspects of his daily life.”
- According to Brewer, “the word guidance should be used whenever an important activity is, to be learnt and assistance needed by an individual to learn that activity and adjust himself, whether that activity is the choice of leisure time activity or habit of eating or behaviour towards the opposite sex.”
Characteristics of Educational Guidance
It is a process: Guidance is a process by which an individual sets his/her goals, makes plans, and works out their problems.
Guidance is a continuous process: It is important as a part of the human body, guidance is needed from childhood to old age to make an individual’s life better by their means.
It is a service meant for everyone: Guidance is a service which is required at every stage of a student’s life, it is not only meant for brighter students or young men or children but for all from youth to old from bright to abnormal students.
Specialized and generalized service: Guidance is a generalized service because everyone like teachers, tutors, parents, advisors, etc plays part in this programme. It is a specialized service because specially qualified persons like counselors, psychiatrists, and psychologists join and help the individual.
Types of Guidance in Education
Guidance is based upon a fact that human beings are in desperate need of help, there are one in a million cases where we find out that a person is self-sufficient and who does not need any help from others. Guidance is applicable to the student’s educational, social, emotional, moral, related health, and leisure time needs, it is applicable to his vocational needs. With the help of guidance and knowledge, a child makes his/her dreams come true and it ultimately leads the society towards new heights. There are two main classifications of guidance shown below:
- Educational Guidance: Educational guidance is not formal teaching, rather it is a process of aiding the individual to place himself in the most favourable setting for education. Educational guidance is not to be confused with organized education. There are several needs for educational guidance like individual differences, different courses, a new college or other environments, etc.
- Vocational Guidance: Vocational means a specific training programme that is related to an occupation or employment. In this process, an individual is assisted towards a set of goals for carrier enhancement or to get a specific job. It is also known as a future building process.
Definition of Counseling in Education by Different Authors
Definition of Counselling in Education
Counselling is a scientific process of assisting an expert, for various purposes in an individual’s life. Counselling is considered at the heart of any guidance programme. It is one of the services of guidance which establishes and makes a strong bond between the counselor and the subject, to achieve optimum educational, vocational, personal, and social development. In earlier days it is considered an incidental and unscientific process but now it is considered a systematic and scientific process. In the field of education, counselling may be described as the interaction, developing through the relationship between counsellor and counselee, and helping them in a meaningful way for their personal and emotional needs.
According to Carl Regers, “Counselling is a series of direct contacts with the individual which aims to offer him assistance in changing his attitudes and behaviour.”
According to Gilbert C. Wren, “counselling is a personal and dynamic relationship between two individuals.”
According to Willy and Andrew, “counselling is a mental learning process. It involves two individuals, one seeking help and other a professionally trained person helping the first to orient and direct himself towards a goal which leads to his maximum development and growth in his environment.”
According to Myers, “Counselling implies a relationship between two individuals in which one gives certain kind of assistance to the other.”
Methods of Counselling in Education
- Directive Counselling: It is also called counsellor-centered counselling. All the focus is centered on a particular problem and the possibility of its solutions. Counsellor plays a more active role in this process. The client makes the decision but counsellor does all to show the counselee the way to satisfaction and progress.
- Non-directive Counselling: It is also known as permissive or client centered counselling. Counselee plays an active role, the goal is the independence and integration of the client along with the solution of the problem