Appraisal Services in Guidance and Counselling
1)This service can be defined in which the data about the students is analysed so that the individual have better understanding of themselves.
2) This kind of data can also be used by the teachers, guidance experts, counsellors for the better guidance and counselling services.
3) According to Makinde 1984, “Appraisal services involve a teacher counsellor collecting, analysing and using a variety of objective data that can enhance better understanding of the student. A teacher counsellor without adequate and reliable information of a student will have difficulties in assisting him/her”.
Principles of Studying and Appraisal of students
1)The appraisal should be for the benefit of the student.
2)Principle of Change: The methods can be vary as per the situation, children, need, etc.
3)Appraisal methods should study the students as well as their environment (Comprehensive).
4)Appraisal is for the improvement for both the appraisee and the appraisal process.
5) Principle of individual’s responsibility and accountability.
6) Principle of Continuity.
Types of Intelligence Tests
1)IQ tests are basically norm based testing in which measure or con on the basis of some norms with same age student.
a)Individual intelligence tests: In this students are assessed how they perform in puzzle, response for a query, game like tasks, etc. So other specialised tests are: the Stanford Binet-Intelligence Scale (diagnose students with cognitive disabilities), The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (language and performance based test).
b)Group intelligence tests: These are used to assess a whole group of students in this we assess the students on the basic of their intellectual performance in a group as compares to other.
a)Personality can be defined as the sum total of an individual behaviour in social situations. Personality test try to assess everything about an individual including socio-emotional and physical area or assess human personality.
b)Personality test can be done by Interview, Observation, Self Ratings and Personality Inventories, Checklists, etc.
Personality test can be divided into two basic tests
1)Self-report inventories: these are basically paper and pencil, computer based test and have questionnaire, used to assess personality of the individual, for example: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI).
2)Projective tests: these kind of test are being used for the hidden emotions and internal conflicts in individuals, in these kind of test involve presentation of inkblots, some images of situation, characters, animals, etc. And what they think about them. Example of some of the projective test are Rorschach Inkblot Test, Thematic Apperception test, Child Apperception Test, etc.
Aptitude or Abilities Test
Aptitude can be defined as a quality or ability to perform in a specific task area or learn specific skills to perform in specific area.
Type of Aptitude or Abilities Test
1)Special Aptitude Tests: these are used to test special ability such as numerical ability, linguistics, etc.
2)Vocational Aptitude Batteries: these are used to test for the occupations or occupationally related activities. For example: the General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), the Flanagan Aptitude Classification Test (FACT), etc.
3)Scholastic Aptitude Test: is used to test Scholastic or academic skills for example: SAT,